Principes de médecine expérimentale (French Edition)
Medical Papers , s. Notes sur des ouvrages lus par Locke, s. Medical Commonplace Book [ f o MS Locke d. Lemnata Physica , Medical Commonplace Book , , MS Locke e. MS Locke f o Medical Notebook , MS Locke f o 2 [ inclut une copie de Pharmacopoeiae Londinis Remedia de sans la page de titre ]. MS Locke f o 27, [ notes sur la respiration ]. Lockes Method of Cureing Agues , Locke , John, De Specificorum remediorum cum corpusculari philosophia concordia, cui accessit dissertation de varia simplicium medicamentorum utilitate, usuque.
Ex anglico in latinum sermonem traducebat D. Locke, and Several of his Friends , Londres, A. Churchill, Desmaizeux, Londres, Scientia Verlag Aalen, Allemagne, Colburn and R. Bentley, Aaron et J. Gibb, Oxford, Clarendon Press, James L. Axtell, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, Delbourg-Delphis, Paris, Vrin, Nidditch, Oxford, Clarendon Press, Nidditch and G. Rogers, Oxford, Oxford Clarendon Press, Spitz, Paris, Garnier-Flammarion, Von Leyden, Oxford, Clarendon Press, reprint Michaud, Paris, Vrin, Hamou, Le livre de poche, Paris, Locke , John, Examen de la vision en Dieu de Malebranche , trad.
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The Vanity of the Craft of Physick. Or, A New Dispensatory. To the Parliament of England. By Noah Biggs, Chymiatrophilos, Londres, Hall et M. Boyle , Robert, De specificiorum remediorum cum corpusculari philosophia concordia , Londres, Hunter et E. Londres, Pickering et Chatto, Hunter, A. Clericuzio et L.
Principe, 6 vols. Sydenham , Edimbourg, J.
Bernard, Claude 1813-1878
Reid, Hoepffner et C. Goffaux, Paris, Corti, Goffaux, 3 vols. Serbat, Paris, Les Belles Lettres, Russel, Aldershot, Ashgate Publishing, , vol. Lee, Londres, Newcomb for Th. Heath, Wilson for H. Herringman, Londres, Danielis et J. Redmanni, Charleton , Walter, Enquiries into Human Nature, in vi.
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White pour R. Boulter, Charleton , Walter, Three Anatomic Lectures concerning 1. The Motion of Bloud through the Veins and Arteries, 2. The Organic Structure of the Heart, 3. Kettilby, Jones, I, R, Together with the Controversies thereto belonging. Collected and translated out of all the best authors of Anatomy especially out of Gasper Bauhinus and Andreas Laurentius , Londres, William Jaggard, Ledoux, Paris, Gallimard, Marton et J.
Ridley, Londres, John Locke, Never before printed, or not extant in his Works , Londres, Moet, White, Londres, R. Lawnes et T. Davies, Dakins, Young … apud Guil. Hope, Furley et J. Wilkie, Princeton University Press, Lectures on the phenomena of life common to animals and plants by Claude Bernard Book 8 editions published between and in English and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide.
Doctorat en sciences biomédicales - Université de Montréal
Audience Level. Related Identities. Associated Subjects. Bernar, Kl. R, A grave illness in October , from which he recovered after eighteen months, led Bernard to abandon the Principes. In L. During his convalescence of —, Bernard turned his attention to philosophy, and read and annotated the philosophical works of Tenneman and of Comte; these notes revealed a subtle and critical attitude toward positivism. The Rapport , which was published on the occasion of the World Exposition of was to have been an objective, historico-encyclopedic treatment of physiology in France. Although he was only a mediocre lecturer, he was able to hold the attention of his audience by the novelty and vividness of his arguments and by the experiments that he improvised in the amphitheater to support his statements.
Science in the making rather than science already made.
Dalton, Austin Flint, W. Horner, and S. The courses that Bernard taught at the Sorbonne were, from their inception, of a more general character. In contrast to the naturalists, Bernard was interested only in vital manifestations that did not differ from species to species. Encouraged by the general development of cellular theory and by his own research on the non specificity of the nutritive processes, he extended his work into plant physiology.
His last experimental researches dealt with anesthesia of animals, influence of the ether application on plants, embryonic development, and fermentation. His legal separation from his wife and the Franco-Prussian War affected him profoundly, but he took pleasure in long stays at St.
Bernard died of what was probably a kidney disease. Scientific Works. As much through concrete discoveries as through the creation of new concepts, the work of Claude Bernard constitutes the founding of modern experimental physiology. His scientific career started with two series of precise and well delimited researches: on the one hand, the chemical and physiological Study of gastric digestion, and on the other, experimental section of nerves.
In both cases, the responsibility for the choice of method and subject rested less with Bernard than with his teacher Magendie. But once the initial impetus had been given, the disciple quickly gave his work a completely new orientation—one that had not been fore seen at the start. Despite some errors for example, Bernard believed that the acidity of the gastric juice was caused by the presence of lactic acid , his experiments on the digestive action of saliva, gastric juice , and bile resulted in discoveries of undeniable value: the presence of an organic enzymatic factor in the gastric juice , the nervous control of gastric secretion, the decomposition of all carbohydrates into monosaccharides prior to their absorption the special defense mechanism of the gastric wall against the digestive activity of the gastric juice, the proteolytic properties of bile , the exact localization of gastric secretion; and so on.
Bernard showed that fasting brought about acidity of the urine in herbivores they lived off their body fat and that man and carnivorous animals put on a vegetarian dietexcreted alkaline urine Bernard then applied himself to the comparative study of the phenomena of digestion in both carnivores and herbivores. He initiated experiments by which to follow the changes in the chyle in the various parts of the intestinal tract of a dog and a rabbit. Thereby he noted that the absorption of fat by the chyliferous vessels occurred at a rather considerable distance from the pylorus in the rabbit and immediately at the beginning of the duodenum in the dog.
Bernard discovered that this difference coincided with an anatomical difference at the point of discharge of the pancreatic juice into the intestine. In order to collect pancreatic juice in its pure state and to study the regulation of its secretion, Bernard conceived and made the ternporary pancreatic fistula, later improved by Pavlov.
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Bernard found that pancreatic juice acted on fats by a saponification process. In studying the digestive properties of the gastric and pancreatic Juices. Bernard did not intend to restrict himself to a narrow view of the problem of local digestion alone, or of the decomposition of food in the gastrointestinal tract. Although he studied intensively the chemical changes in food exposed, both in vivo and in vitro , to saliva, gastric Juice, or pancreatic juice, this was to him only one, fragmentary aspect of a vast research subject.
What interested him above all was what happened to the food in the animal organism, from its entry until its total assimilation or excretion. To begin with, Bernard accepted the theory of his teachers that animals are incapable of synthesizing sugar, fat, and albumin. These three substances would always originate in plants, and their percentage in the blood would vary and would depend essentially on the food consumed.
Nutrition would consist of three stages: digestion, transport of digested substances, and chemical in corporation or combustion. Then he discovered that the alleged transport of absorbed substances is an extremely complicated process, more chemical than physical, more a series of transformations than a series of displacements. He also understood that nutrition is a phenomenon of synthesis as much as it is an analytical process.
Bernard, Claude 1813-1878
The two extremes were known and the rest was accomplished by means of the physiology of probability. In his thesis on gastric juice , Bernard published, marginally to the principal subject, the first results of his experiments on the ingestion of food substances by other than natural means. Gastric juice changes all other forms of carbohydrates into assimilable physiological sugar.
Blinded by prevalent theories, Bernard searched in vain for the site and the manner of breakdown of sugar in the animal organism. After four years of experimentation an apparently contradictory observation, a new experimental fact upset the entire theoretical structure. In August , Bernard noted the presence of sugar in the blood of an animal from which all solid food had been withheld for several days. Greatly surprised, he turned his research in anew direction. Thus he was soon able to discover 1 that glycemia is a normal and constant phenomenon, independent of food intake and 2 , that the liver produces sugar and empties it into the blood.